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Biography : Rabidranath Tagor


Rabindranath Tagore: also written Ravindranatha Thakura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped his region's literature and music. Author of Gitanjali and its "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse", he became the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. In translation his poetry was viewed as spiritual and mercurial; however, his "elegant prose and magical poetry" remain largely unknown outside Bengal. Tagore introduced new prose and verse forms and the use of colloquial language into Bengali literature, thereby freeing it from traditional models based on classical Sanskrit. He was highly influential in introducing the best of Indian culture to the West and vice versa, and he is generally regarded as the outstanding creative artist of modern South Asia.

A Pirali Brahmin from Calcutta, Tagore wrote poetry as an eight-year-old. At age sixteen, he released his first substantial poems under the pseudonym Bhanusimha ("Sun Lion"), which were seized upon by literary authorities as long-lost classics. He graduated to his first short stories and dramas—and the aegis of his birth name—by 1877. As a humanist, universalist internationalist, and strident anti-nationalist he denounced the Raj and advocated independence from Britain. As an exponent of the Bengal Renaissance, he advanced a vast canon that comprised paintings, sketches and doodles, hundreds of texts, and some two thousand songs; his legacy endures also in the institution he founded, Visva-Bharati University.

Tagore modernised Bengali art by spurning rigid classical forms and resisting linguistic strictures. His novels, stories, songs, dance-dramas, and essays spoke to topics political and personal. Gitanjali (Song Offerings), Gora (Fair-Faced) and Ghare-Baire (The Home and the World) are his best-known works, and his verse, short stories, and novels were acclaimed—or panned—for their lyricism, colloquialism, naturalism, and unnatural contemplation. His compositions were chosen by two nations as national anthems: India's Jana Gana Mana and Bangladesh's Amar Shonar Bangla.

Early life: 1861–1878
The youngest of thirteen surviving children, Tagore was born in the Jorasanko mansion in Calcutta, India to parents Debendranath Tagore (1817–1905) and Sarada Devi (1830–1875). The Tagore family came into prominence during the Bengal Renaissance that started during the age of Hussein Shah (1493–1519). The original name of the Tagore family was Banerjee. Being Brahmins, their ancestors were referred to as 'Thakurmashai' or 'Holy Sir'. During the British rule, this name stuck and they began to be recognised as Thakur and eventually the family name got anglicised to Tagore.Tagore family patriarchs were the Brahmo founders of the Adi Dharm faith. The loyalist "Prince" Dwarkanath Tagore, who employed European estate managers and visited with Victoria and other royalty, was his paternal grandfather. Debendranath had formulated the Brahmoist philosophies espoused by his friend Ram Mohan Roy, and became focal in Brahmo society after Roy's death

Twilight years: 1932–1941
Tagore's life as a "peripatetic litterateur" affirmed his opinion that human divisions were shallow. During a May 1932 visit to a Bedouin encampment in the Iraqi desert, the tribal chief told him that "Our prophet has said that a true Muslim is he by whose words and deeds not the least of his brother-men may ever come to any harm ..." Tagore confided in his diary: "I was startled into recognizing in his words the voice of essential humanity." To the end Tagore scrutinised orthodoxy—and in 1934, he struck. That year, an earthquake hit Bihar and killed thousands. Gandhi hailed it as seismic karma, as divine retribution avenging the oppression of Dalits. Tagore rebuked him for his seemingly ignominious inferences.[56] He mourned the perennial poverty of Calcutta and the socioeconomic decline of Bengal. He detailed these newly plebeian aesthetics in an unrhymed hundred-line poem whose technique of searing double-vision foreshadowed Satyajit Ray's film Apur Sansar. Fifteen new volumes appeared, among them prose-poem works Punashcha (1932), Shes Saptak (1935), and Patraput (1936). Experimentation continued in his prose-songs and dance-dramas: Chitra (1914), Shyama (1939), and Chandalika (1938); and in his novels: Dui Bon (1933), Malancha (1934), and Char Adhyay (1934).

Travels
Between 1878 and 1932, Tagore set foot in more than thirty countries on five continents. In 1912, he took a sheaf of his translated works to England, where they gained attention from missionary and Gandhi protégé Charles F. Andrews, Irish poet William Butler Yeats, Ezra Pound, Robert Bridges, Ernest Rhys, Thomas Sturge Moore, and others. Yeats wrote the preface to the English translation of Gitanjali; Andrews joined Tagore at Santiniketan. In November 1912 Tagore began touring the United States and the United Kingdom, staying in Butterton, Staffordshire with Andrews's clergymen friends. From May 1916 until April 1917, he lectured in Japan and the United States. He denounced nationalism. His essay "Nationalism in India" was scorned and praised; it was admired by Romain Rolland and other pacifists.

Works
Known mostly for his poetry, Tagore wrote novels, essays, short stories, travelogues, dramas, and thousands of songs. Of Tagore's prose, his short stories are perhaps most highly regarded; he is indeed credited with originating the Bengali-language version of the genre. His works are frequently noted for their rhythmic, optimistic, and lyrical nature. Such stories mostly borrow from deceptively simple subject matter: commoners. Tagore's non-fiction grappled with history, linguistics, and spirituality. He wrote autobiographies. His travelogues, essays, and lectures were compiled into several volumes, including Europe Jatrir Patro (Letters from Europe) and Manusher Dhormo (The Religion of Man). His brief chat with Einstein, "Note on the Nature of Reality", is included as an appendix to the latter. On the occasion of Tagore's 150th birthday an anthology (titled Kalanukromik Rabindra Rachanabali) of the total body of his works is currently being published in Bengali in chronological order. This includes all versions of each work and fills about eighty volumes. In 2011, Harvard University Press collaborated with Visva-Bharati University to publish The Essential Tagore, the largest anthology of Tagore's works available in English; it was edited by Fakrul Alam and Radha Chakravarthy and marks the 150th anniversary of Tagore's birth.

 
Few Books of Rabidranath Tagor
Rinshodh
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Shesh Kotha
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Bou Thakuranir Hat
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Chaturanga
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Shyama
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All Books of Rabidranath Tagor
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What to Do When Your Boss Is Younger Than You

By Catherine Conlan
Monster Contributing Writer

There are always going to be challenges associated with generational differences in the workplace, but some people find dealing with a younger boss to be especially difficult. If you’re older than your boss, here are some things you should keep in mind.

Show Some Respect
One of the most important things to remember when your boss is younger than you is to show respect, says Robin Throckmorton, president of Strategic HR Inc. “While he or she may be younger, they wouldn’t be in this role if someone didn’t feel they had a lot to offer the role, even if you disagree.”

While it can be easy to think, “my kids are younger than you” or “before you were even born, we…” Throckmorton says if you show respect for your boss, you’ll get it in return.

Be Flexible and Cooperative
Keeping an open mind and staying flexible about how things get done at the office are important when there’s an age difference between you and your boss, says Paul Bernard of Paul Bernard and Associates. “For example, you may be used to a lot of face-to-face meeting time, but your boss may prefer to handle a lot of his communications via text or instant messenger,” he says.

“Don't balk at this -- you'll come across as stubborn and old-fashioned. Instead, try to align yourself as best you can with your boss's management style. You might find that there are some real advantages to doing things differently.”

Bernard then recommends trying to figure out how you can complement your boss' strengths. “Your boss may be a mobile content maven but might need help navigating office politics or be able to use some historical context about your company and how things are typically done. If you can find a way to make your younger boss more successful, you'll help not only him/her but yourself as well.”

Remember Age Is Just a Number
An age difference can be a distraction, so try not to focus on it, says Kelly Hadous of Win The Room. “Don't pay attention to your boss's age! Age doesn't matter as long as your boss provides good leadership and strong guidance, and brings passion and motivation into the company and the team. Ride along with your boss; if you share the same willingness to grow the company and move the team forward, everything will just be fine, and age won't matter.

Communicate
No matter how old your boss is, it’s important to ensure you’re on the same page, and that requires clear communication. “Early on set a time to speak with your younger boss regarding expectations, style, and role clarity,” says Scott Span of Tolero Solutions. “Ask their preferred way of communication and delivery of requirements. Boomers and Millennials need to continue to dialogue, build trust, to put stereotypes to rest to maximize performance."

Focus on the Organization
You and your boss are a team, and you’re working to help build your department, division or company. “Keep focused on the vision of the company or division for which you're working, and praise alignment,” says business coach Wayne Pernell. “You get more of what you focus on and being focused on a bigger picture can interrupt the internal monologue stemming from generational differences.”

Be Sensitive
It can be hard to avoid holding forth with the wisdom you’ve accumulated over the years, but you should try. “Refrain from behaviors that drive younger generations crazy,” says Tammy Hughes, CEO of Claire Raines Associates and international speaker and consultant on generational issues. “Avoid comparing your manager to your son or daughter. Don’t act like a know-it-all. Nip cynicism and sarcasm in the bud.”
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