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Biography : Rabidranath Tagor

Rabindranath Tagore: also written Ravindranatha Thakura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped his region's literature and music. Author of Gitanjali and its "profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse", he became the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. In translation his poetry was viewed as spiritual and mercurial; however, his "elegant prose and magical poetry" remain largely unknown outside Bengal. Tagore introduced new prose and verse forms and the use of colloquial language into Bengali literature, thereby freeing it from traditional models based on classical Sanskrit. He was highly influential in introducing the best of Indian culture to the West and vice versa, and he is generally regarded as the outstanding creative artist of modern South Asia.

A Pirali Brahmin from Calcutta, Tagore wrote poetry as an eight-year-old. At age sixteen, he released his first substantial poems under the pseudonym Bhanusimha ("Sun Lion"), which were seized upon by literary authorities as long-lost classics. He graduated to his first short stories and dramas—and the aegis of his birth name—by 1877. As a humanist, universalist internationalist, and strident anti-nationalist he denounced the Raj and advocated independence from Britain. As an exponent of the Bengal Renaissance, he advanced a vast canon that comprised paintings, sketches and doodles, hundreds of texts, and some two thousand songs; his legacy endures also in the institution he founded, Visva-Bharati University.

Tagore modernised Bengali art by spurning rigid classical forms and resisting linguistic strictures. His novels, stories, songs, dance-dramas, and essays spoke to topics political and personal. Gitanjali (Song Offerings), Gora (Fair-Faced) and Ghare-Baire (The Home and the World) are his best-known works, and his verse, short stories, and novels were acclaimed—or panned—for their lyricism, colloquialism, naturalism, and unnatural contemplation. His compositions were chosen by two nations as national anthems: India's Jana Gana Mana and Bangladesh's Amar Shonar Bangla.

Early life: 1861–1878
The youngest of thirteen surviving children, Tagore was born in the Jorasanko mansion in Calcutta, India to parents Debendranath Tagore (1817–1905) and Sarada Devi (1830–1875). The Tagore family came into prominence during the Bengal Renaissance that started during the age of Hussein Shah (1493–1519). The original name of the Tagore family was Banerjee. Being Brahmins, their ancestors were referred to as 'Thakurmashai' or 'Holy Sir'. During the British rule, this name stuck and they began to be recognised as Thakur and eventually the family name got anglicised to Tagore.Tagore family patriarchs were the Brahmo founders of the Adi Dharm faith. The loyalist "Prince" Dwarkanath Tagore, who employed European estate managers and visited with Victoria and other royalty, was his paternal grandfather. Debendranath had formulated the Brahmoist philosophies espoused by his friend Ram Mohan Roy, and became focal in Brahmo society after Roy's death

Twilight years: 1932–1941
Tagore's life as a "peripatetic litterateur" affirmed his opinion that human divisions were shallow. During a May 1932 visit to a Bedouin encampment in the Iraqi desert, the tribal chief told him that "Our prophet has said that a true Muslim is he by whose words and deeds not the least of his brother-men may ever come to any harm ..." Tagore confided in his diary: "I was startled into recognizing in his words the voice of essential humanity." To the end Tagore scrutinised orthodoxy—and in 1934, he struck. That year, an earthquake hit Bihar and killed thousands. Gandhi hailed it as seismic karma, as divine retribution avenging the oppression of Dalits. Tagore rebuked him for his seemingly ignominious inferences.[56] He mourned the perennial poverty of Calcutta and the socioeconomic decline of Bengal. He detailed these newly plebeian aesthetics in an unrhymed hundred-line poem whose technique of searing double-vision foreshadowed Satyajit Ray's film Apur Sansar. Fifteen new volumes appeared, among them prose-poem works Punashcha (1932), Shes Saptak (1935), and Patraput (1936). Experimentation continued in his prose-songs and dance-dramas: Chitra (1914), Shyama (1939), and Chandalika (1938); and in his novels: Dui Bon (1933), Malancha (1934), and Char Adhyay (1934).

Between 1878 and 1932, Tagore set foot in more than thirty countries on five continents. In 1912, he took a sheaf of his translated works to England, where they gained attention from missionary and Gandhi protégé Charles F. Andrews, Irish poet William Butler Yeats, Ezra Pound, Robert Bridges, Ernest Rhys, Thomas Sturge Moore, and others. Yeats wrote the preface to the English translation of Gitanjali; Andrews joined Tagore at Santiniketan. In November 1912 Tagore began touring the United States and the United Kingdom, staying in Butterton, Staffordshire with Andrews's clergymen friends. From May 1916 until April 1917, he lectured in Japan and the United States. He denounced nationalism. His essay "Nationalism in India" was scorned and praised; it was admired by Romain Rolland and other pacifists.

Known mostly for his poetry, Tagore wrote novels, essays, short stories, travelogues, dramas, and thousands of songs. Of Tagore's prose, his short stories are perhaps most highly regarded; he is indeed credited with originating the Bengali-language version of the genre. His works are frequently noted for their rhythmic, optimistic, and lyrical nature. Such stories mostly borrow from deceptively simple subject matter: commoners. Tagore's non-fiction grappled with history, linguistics, and spirituality. He wrote autobiographies. His travelogues, essays, and lectures were compiled into several volumes, including Europe Jatrir Patro (Letters from Europe) and Manusher Dhormo (The Religion of Man). His brief chat with Einstein, "Note on the Nature of Reality", is included as an appendix to the latter. On the occasion of Tagore's 150th birthday an anthology (titled Kalanukromik Rabindra Rachanabali) of the total body of his works is currently being published in Bengali in chronological order. This includes all versions of each work and fills about eighty volumes. In 2011, Harvard University Press collaborated with Visva-Bharati University to publish The Essential Tagore, the largest anthology of Tagore's works available in English; it was edited by Fakrul Alam and Radha Chakravarthy and marks the 150th anniversary of Tagore's birth.

Few Books of Rabidranath Tagor
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Article and Tutorial
25 Acts of Email Cruelty: Do not be cruel in email--stop doing these things
By John Brandon


You arrive at work and the first message waiting at the top of your Gmail is rude, sarcastic, and demeaning. That's not exactly the intended use of the communication method.

Email is great for explaining a complex topic, documenting a subject, and communicating about upcoming plans. Using it to take your anger out on someone? That's just another way of being cruel.

These examples of being harsh by email won't help anyone stay productive and focused on their work, or enjoy being in the office:

1. Responding to an email with just a Web link without any explanation. I am guilty as charged. I recently realized it's a little gruff. It's better to at least give a quick annotation. (In some cases, it's obviously just a quick and helpful aid.)

2. Answering an email with one word and no other explanation. I'll contend it is sometimes the only way to cut people off, but you wouldn't do that in the grocery line, right? Right? One word replies sometimes work, sometimes they are just rude.

3. Using the word unfortunately. I have mentioned this one before. Unfortunately, people keep using it in emails and it still seems dismissive.

4. Swearing. I'm just not a fan of swearing in general--it's a bit lazy. And, you never know if someone will take your humor the wrong way. Or show the message to the boss.

5. Not answering at all. Somehow society in general decided "no reply" to an email is no answer. It's better to at least reply and give an explanation.

6. Pestering. The all-time record for someone asking me about their product is around six emails. It's okay to remind me. It's not okay to pummel.

7. Writing a lengthy email about why that person is an idiot. I understand people get angry and need to vent. My solution? Go ahead and write the long email, then delete it. Or just go talk to the person.

8. Boring people with too much detail. This is not a NASA rocket convention. By cleaning up your prose and summarizing things, you are making the recipient much happier in life.

9. Arguing over email. Arguments sometimes erupt over email, and it just causes people a lot of stress. Stick to the phone or, better yet, just let something slide once in a while.

10. Not calling. Sometimes, it's just cruel to email period. There are some topics, like trying to retain an employee or discussing future plans, that are best voice calls.

11. Blaming by email. It's an easy way to avoid confrontation, but a really terrible way of resolving anything. Blaming by email almost always puts some on the defense.

12. Being terse. Face it, we've all sent short and snappy emails. It's not always a bad thing. However, not explaining yourself fully usually creates a communication nightmare.

13. Criticizing grammar. Sure, your recipient has not mastered the difference betweeneffect and affect. I get that. Calling out bad grammar just slows down the discussion.

14. Explaining at length why it is better to do a phone call. I've received these missives before. Isn't it better to just call and explain that? Or just arranging the call without hammering the point?

15. Making fun of someone for hitting Reply All by mistake. Sure, it's a little dumb. It becomes cruel when everyone starts making fun of the original sender.

16. Making sexual overtones. You'd be surprised how often people send suggestive emails, making a permanent record of the debauchery that's easy to bring up in a performance review.

17. Forwarding spam. Really? I suppose there might be a small minority of spam messages that are funny or weird, but please keep them to yourself.

18. Sending chain mail. These are not just annoying, they usually don't make any sense. Plus, no one will ever know that you broke the chain--not even Stevie Nicks.

19. Letting everyone knowyou're the boss. Another tactic that just looks bad by email (or in any context). It's better to develop trust, respect, and even admiration from employees by making good decisions.

20. Belittling. Sure, the recipient screwed up a project and doesn't seem to understand basic business practices. Using email to chastise them just makes you look mean.

21. Telling lies. Watch yourself on this one. If you lie by email, the recipient can pretty easily prove you wrong--and they will hang onto the message as proof.

22. Sending an animate GIF. Apart from clogging up the email pathways, not everyone is amused by a dancing kitten. Plus, not every email program can read them.

23. Firing someone. Well, this one is obvious but it has happened. If you have to terminate someone, always do it in person and follow well-established guidelines.

24. Dramatically altering a project. I'm convinced people use email to make a sweeping change because they don't want to deal with the backlash. It's just not the best way to make big changes.

25. Closing down a business entirely. Has it finally come to the bitter end? Hold an all-hands meeting or talk to employees one-on-one. Don't use email for it.

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Writing Secure PHP
Learn how to avoid some of the most common mistakes in PHP, and so make your sites more secure.

PHP is a very easy language to learn, and many people without any sort of background in programming learn it as a way to add interactivity to their web sites. Unfortunately, that often means PHP programmers, especially those newer to web development, are unaware of the potential security risks their web applications can contain. Here are a few of the more common security problems and how to avoid them.

Rule Number One: Never, Ever, Trust Your Users

It can never be said enough times, you should never, ever, ever trust your users to send you the data you expect. I have heard many people respond to that with something like "Oh, nobody malicious would be interested in my site". Leaving aside that that could not be more wrong, it is not always a malicious user who can exploit a security hole - problems can just as easily arise because of a user unintentionally doing something wrong.

So the cardinal rule of all web development, and I can't stress it enough, is: Never, Ever, Trust Your Users. Assume every single piece of data your site collects from a user contains malicious code. Always. That includes data you think you have checked with client-side validation, for example using JavaScript. If you can manage that, you'll be off to a good start. If PHP security is important to you, this single point is the most important to learn. Personally, I have a "PHP Security" sheet next to my desk with major points on, and this is in large bold text, right at the top.
Global Variables

In many languages you must explicitly create a variable in order to use it. In PHP, there is an option, "register_globals", that you can set in php.ini that allows you to use global variables, ones you do not need to explicitly create.

Consider the following code:

    if ($password == "my_password") {

    $authorized = 1;


    if ($authorized == 1) {

    echo "Lots of important stuff.";


To many that may look fine, and in fact this exact type of code is in use all over the web. However, if a server has "register_globals" set to on, then simply adding "?authorized=1" to the URL will give anyone free access to exactly what you do not want everyone to see. This is one of the most common PHP security problems.

Fortunately, this has a couple of possible simple solutions. The first, and perhaps the best, is to set "register_globals" to off. The second is to ensure that you only use variables that you have explicitly set yourself. In the above example, that would mean adding "$authorized = 0;" at the beginning of the script:

$authorized = 0;

if ($password == "my_password") {

    $authorized = 1;


if ($authorized == 1) {

    echo "Lots of important stuff.";


Error Messages

Errors are a very useful tool for both programmer and hacker. A developer needs them in order to fix bugs. A hacker can use them to find out all sorts of information about a site, from the directory structure of the server to database login information. If possible, it is best to turn off all error reporting in a live application. PHP can be told to do this through .htaccess or php.ini, by setting "error_reporting" to "0". If you have a development environment, you can set a different error reporting level for that.

SQL Injection

One of PHP's greatest strengths is the ease with which it can communicate with databases, most notably MySQL. Many people make extensive use of this, and a great many sites, including this one, rely on databases to function.

However, as you would expect, with that much power there are potentially huge security problems you can face. Fortunately, there are plenty of solutions. The most common security hazard faced when interacting with a database is that of SQL Injection - when a user uses a security glitch to run SQL queries on your database.

Let's use a common example. Many login systems feature a line that looks a lot like this when checking the username and password entered into a form by a user against a database of valid username and password combinations, for example to control access to an administration area:

$check = mysql_query("SELECT Username, Password, UserLevel FROM Users WHERE Username = '".$_POST['username']."' and Password = '".$_POST['password']."'");

Look familiar? It may well do. And on the face of it, the above does not look like it could do much damage. But let's say for a moment that I enter the following into the "username" input box in the form and submit it:

' OR 1=1 #

The query that is going to be executed will now look like this:

SELECT Username, Password FROM Users WHERE Username = '' OR 1=1 #' and Password = ''

The hash symbol (#) tells MySQL that everything following it is a comment and to ignore it. So it will actually only execute the SQL up to that point. As 1 always equals 1, the SQL will return all of the usernames and passwords from the database. And as the first username and password combination in most user login databases is the admin user, the person who simply entered a few symbols in a username box is now logged in as your website administrator, with the same powers they would have if they actually knew the username and password.

With a little creativity, the above can be exploited further, allowing a user to create their own login account, read credit card numbers or even wipe a database clean.

Fortunately, this type of vulnerability is easy enough to work around. By checking for apostrophes in the items we enter into the database, and removing or neutralising them, we can prevent anyone from running their own SQL code on our database. The function below would do the trick:

function make_safe($variable) {

    $variable = mysql_real_escape_string(trim($variable));

    return $variable;


Now, to modify our query. Instead of using _POST variables as in the query above, we now run all user data through the make_safe function, resulting in the following code:

$username = make_safe($_POST['username']);

$password = make_safe($_POST['password']);

$check = mysql_query("SELECT Username, Password, UserLevel FROM Users WHERE Username = '".$username."' and Password = '".$password."'");

Now, if a user entered the malicious data above, the query will look like the following, which is perfectly harmless. The following query will select from a database where the username is equal to "\' OR 1=1 #".

SELECT Username, Password, UserLevel FROM Users WHERE Username = '\' OR 1=1 #' and Password = ''

Now, unless you happen to have a user with a very unusual username and a blank password, your malicious attacker will not be able to do any damage at all. It is important to check all data passed to your database like this, however secure you think it is. HTTP Headers sent from the user can be faked. Their referral address can be faked. Their browsers User Agent string can be faked. Do not trust a single piece of data sent by the user, though, and you will be fine.

File Manipulation

Some sites currently running on the web today have URLs that look like this:


The "index.php" file then simply includes the "contactus.html" file, and the site appears to work. However, the user can very easily change the "contactus.html" bit to anything they like. For example, if you are using Apache's mod_auth to protect files and have saved your password in a file named ".htpasswd" (the conventional name), then if a user were to visit the following address, the script would output your username and password:


By changing the URL, on some systems, to reference a file on another server, they could even run PHP that they have written on your site. Scared? You should be. Fortunately, again, this is reasonably easy to protect against. First, make sure you have correctly set "open_basedir" in your php.ini file, and have set "allow_url_fopen" to "off". That will prevent most of these kinds of attacks by preventing the inclusion of remote files and system files. Next, if you can, check the file requested against a list of valid files. If you limit the files that can be accessed using this script, you will save yourself a lot of aggravation later.

Using Defaults

When MySQL is installed, it uses a default username of "root" and blank password. SQL Server uses "sa" as the default user with a blank password. If someone finds the address of your database server and wants to try to log in, these are the first combinations they will try. If you have not set a different password (and ideally username as well) than the default, then you may well wake up one morning to find your database has been wiped and all your customers' credit card numbers stolen. The same applies to all software you use - if software comes with default username or password, change them.

Leaving Installation Files Online

Many PHP programs come with installation files. Many of these are self-deleting once run, and many applications will refuse to run until you delete the installation files. Many however, will not pay the blindest bit of attention if the install files are still online. If they are still online, they may still be usable, and someone may be able to use them to overwrite your entire site.


Let us imagine for a second that your site has attracted the attention of a Bad Person. This Bad Person wants to break in to your administration area, and change all of your product descriptions to "This Product Sucks". I would hazard a guess that their first step will be to go to - just in case it exists. Placing your sensitive files and folders somewhere predictable like that makes life for potential hackers that little bit easier.

With this in mind, make sure you name your sensitive files and folders so that they are tough to guess. Placing your admin area at might make it harder to just type in quickly, but it adds an extra layer of security to your site. Pick something memorable by all means if you need an address you can remember quickly, but don't pick "admin" or "administration" (or your username or password). Pick something unusual.

The same applies to usernames and passwords. If you have an admin area, do not use "admin" as the username and "password" as the password. Pick something unusual, ideally with both letters and numbers (some hackers use something called a "dictionary attack", trying every word in a dictionary as a password until they find a word that works - adding a couple of digits to the end of a password renders this type of attack useless). It is also wise to change your password fairly regularly (every month or two).

Finally, make sure that your error messages give nothing away. If your admin area gives an error message saying "Unknown Username" when a bad username is entered and "Wrong Password" when the wrong password is entered, a malicious user will know when they've managed to guess a valid username. Using a generic "Login Error" error message for both of the above means that a malicious user will have no idea if it is the username or password he has entered that is wrong.

Finally, Be Completely and Utterly Paranoid

If you assume your site will never come under attack, or face any problems of any sort, then when something eventually does go wrong, you will be in massive amounts of trouble. If, on the other hand, you assume every single visitor to your site is out to get you and you are permanently at war, you will help yourself to keep your site secure, and be prepared in case things should go wrong.