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Biography : Jonathan Swift


Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.

Swift is remembered for works such as Gulliver's Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, Drapier's Letters, The Battle of the Books, An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity and A Tale of a Tub. He is regarded by the Encyclopædia Britannica as the foremost prose satirist in the English language, and is less well known for his poetry. He originally published all of his works under pseudonyms – such as Lemuel Gulliver, Isaac Bickerstaff, Drapier's Letters as MB Drapier – or anonymously. He is also known for being a master of two styles of satire, the Horatian and Juvenalian styles.

His deadpan, ironic writing style, particularly in A Modest Proposal, has led to such satire being subsequently termed "Swiftian".

Jonathan Swift was born on 30 November 1667 in Dublin, Ireland. He was the second child and only son of Jonathan Swift (1640–1667) and his wife Abigail Erick (or Herrick), of Frisby on the Wreake. His father, a native of Goodrich, Herefordshire, accompanied his brothers to Ireland to seek their fortunes in law after their Royalist father's estate was brought to ruin during the English Civil War. Swift's father died in Dublin about seven months before he was born. His mother returned to England after his birth, leaving him in the care of his influential uncle, Godwin, a close friend and confidant of Sir John Temple, whose son later employed Swift as his secretary.
House in which Swift was born, 1865 illustration

Swift's family had several interesting literary connections: his grandmother, Elizabeth (Dryden) Swift, was the niece of Sir Erasmus Dryden, grandfather of the poet John Dryden. The same grandmother's aunt, Katherine (Throckmorton) Dryden, was a first cousin of Elizabeth, wife of Sir Walter Raleigh. His great-great grandmother, Margaret (Godwin) Swift, was the sister of Francis Godwin, author of The Man in the Moone which influenced parts of Swift's Gulliver's Travels. His uncle, Thomas Swift, married a daughter of the poet and playwright Sir William Davenant, a godson of William Shakespeare.

Swift's uncle Godwin Swift (1628–1695), a benefactor, took primary responsibility for the young Jonathan, sending him with one of his cousins to Kilkenny College (also attended by the philosopher George Berkeley). In 1682, financed by Godwin's son Willoughby, he attended Dublin University (Trinity College, Dublin), from which he received his B.A. in 1686, and developed his friendship with William Congreve. Swift was studying for his master's degree when political troubles in Ireland surrounding the Glorious Revolution forced him in 1688 to leave for England, where his mother helped him get a position as secretary and personal assistant of Sir William Temple at Moor Park, Farnham. Temple was an English diplomat who, having arranged the Triple Alliance of 1668, had retired from public service to his country estate to tend his gardens and write his memoirs. Gaining his employer's confidence, Swift "was often trusted with matters of great importance". Within three years of their acquaintance, Temple had introduced his secretary to William III and sent him to London to urge the King to consent to a bill for triennial Parliaments.

When Swift took up his residence at Moor Park, he met Esther Johnson, then eight years old, the daughter of an impoverished widow who acted as companion to Temple's sister, Lady Giffard. Swift acted as her tutor and mentor, giving her the nickname "Stella", and the two maintained a close but ambiguous relationship for the rest of Esther's life.

In 1690, Swift left Temple for Ireland because of his health but returned to Moor Park the following year. The illness, fits of vertigo or giddiness – now known to be Ménière's disease—would continue to plague Swift throughout his life. During this second stay with Temple, Swift received his M.A. from Hart Hall, Oxford in 1692. Then, apparently despairing of gaining a better position through Temple's patronage, Swift left Moor Park to become an ordained priest in the Established Church of Ireland, and in 1694 he was appointed to the prebend of Kilroot in the Diocese of Connor, with his parish located at Kilroot, near Carrickfergus in County Antrim.

Swift appears to have been miserable in his new position, being isolated in a small, remote community far from the centres of power and influence. While at Kilroot, however, Swift may well have become romantically involved with Jane Waring, whom he called "Varina", the sister of an old college friend. A letter from him survives, offering to remain if she would marry him and promising to leave and never return to Ireland if she refused. She presumably refused, because Swift left his post and returned to England and Temple's service at Moor Park in 1696, and he remained there until Temple's death. There he was employed in helping to prepare Temple's memoirs and correspondence for publication. During this time Swift wrote The Battle of the Books, a satire responding to critics of Temple's Essay upon Ancient and Modern Learning (1690), though Battle was not published until 1704.

Temple died on 27 January 1699. Swift, normally a harsh judge of human nature, said that all that was good and amiable in humankind had died with Temple. Swift stayed on briefly in England to complete the editing of Temple's memoirs, and perhaps in the hope that recognition of his work might earn him a suitable position in England. Unfortunately, Swift's work made enemies among some of Temple's family and friends, in particular Temple's formidable sister, Lady Giffard, who objected to indiscretions included in the memoirs. Swift's next move was to approach King William directly, based on his imagined connection through Temple and a belief that he had been promised a position. This failed so miserably that he accepted the lesser post of secretary and chaplain to the Earl of Berkeley, one of the Lords Justice of Ireland. However, when he reached Ireland he found that the secretaryship had already been given to another. He soon obtained the living of Laracor, Agher, and Rathbeggan, and the prebend of Dunlavin in St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.

At Laracor, just over four and half miles (7.5 km) from Summerhill, County Meath, and twenty miles (32 km) from Dublin, Swift ministered to a congregation of about fifteen and had abundant leisure for cultivating his garden, making a canal (after the Dutch fashion of Moor Park), planting willows, and rebuilding the vicarage. As chaplain to Lord Berkeley, he spent much of his time in Dublin and travelled to London frequently over the next ten years. In 1701, Swift anonymously published a political pamphlet, A Discourse on the Contests and Dissentions in Athens and Rome.

 
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25 Acts of Email Cruelty: Do not be cruel in email--stop doing these things
By John Brandon

Refference: https://smallbusiness.yahoo.com/advisor/25-acts-of-email-cruelty--don-t-be-cruel-in-email--stop-doing-these-things-223933544.html

You arrive at work and the first message waiting at the top of your Gmail is rude, sarcastic, and demeaning. That's not exactly the intended use of the communication method.

Email is great for explaining a complex topic, documenting a subject, and communicating about upcoming plans. Using it to take your anger out on someone? That's just another way of being cruel.

These examples of being harsh by email won't help anyone stay productive and focused on their work, or enjoy being in the office:

1. Responding to an email with just a Web link without any explanation. I am guilty as charged. I recently realized it's a little gruff. It's better to at least give a quick annotation. (In some cases, it's obviously just a quick and helpful aid.)

2. Answering an email with one word and no other explanation. I'll contend it is sometimes the only way to cut people off, but you wouldn't do that in the grocery line, right? Right? One word replies sometimes work, sometimes they are just rude.

3. Using the word unfortunately. I have mentioned this one before. Unfortunately, people keep using it in emails and it still seems dismissive.

4. Swearing. I'm just not a fan of swearing in general--it's a bit lazy. And, you never know if someone will take your humor the wrong way. Or show the message to the boss.

5. Not answering at all. Somehow society in general decided "no reply" to an email is no answer. It's better to at least reply and give an explanation.

6. Pestering. The all-time record for someone asking me about their product is around six emails. It's okay to remind me. It's not okay to pummel.

7. Writing a lengthy email about why that person is an idiot. I understand people get angry and need to vent. My solution? Go ahead and write the long email, then delete it. Or just go talk to the person.

8. Boring people with too much detail. This is not a NASA rocket convention. By cleaning up your prose and summarizing things, you are making the recipient much happier in life.

9. Arguing over email. Arguments sometimes erupt over email, and it just causes people a lot of stress. Stick to the phone or, better yet, just let something slide once in a while.

10. Not calling. Sometimes, it's just cruel to email period. There are some topics, like trying to retain an employee or discussing future plans, that are best voice calls.

11. Blaming by email. It's an easy way to avoid confrontation, but a really terrible way of resolving anything. Blaming by email almost always puts some on the defense.

12. Being terse. Face it, we've all sent short and snappy emails. It's not always a bad thing. However, not explaining yourself fully usually creates a communication nightmare.

13. Criticizing grammar. Sure, your recipient has not mastered the difference betweeneffect and affect. I get that. Calling out bad grammar just slows down the discussion.

14. Explaining at length why it is better to do a phone call. I've received these missives before. Isn't it better to just call and explain that? Or just arranging the call without hammering the point?

15. Making fun of someone for hitting Reply All by mistake. Sure, it's a little dumb. It becomes cruel when everyone starts making fun of the original sender.

16. Making sexual overtones. You'd be surprised how often people send suggestive emails, making a permanent record of the debauchery that's easy to bring up in a performance review.

17. Forwarding spam. Really? I suppose there might be a small minority of spam messages that are funny or weird, but please keep them to yourself.

18. Sending chain mail. These are not just annoying, they usually don't make any sense. Plus, no one will ever know that you broke the chain--not even Stevie Nicks.

19. Letting everyone knowyou're the boss. Another tactic that just looks bad by email (or in any context). It's better to develop trust, respect, and even admiration from employees by making good decisions.

20. Belittling. Sure, the recipient screwed up a project and doesn't seem to understand basic business practices. Using email to chastise them just makes you look mean.

21. Telling lies. Watch yourself on this one. If you lie by email, the recipient can pretty easily prove you wrong--and they will hang onto the message as proof.

22. Sending an animate GIF. Apart from clogging up the email pathways, not everyone is amused by a dancing kitten. Plus, not every email program can read them.

23. Firing someone. Well, this one is obvious but it has happened. If you have to terminate someone, always do it in person and follow well-established guidelines.

24. Dramatically altering a project. I'm convinced people use email to make a sweeping change because they don't want to deal with the backlash. It's just not the best way to make big changes.

25. Closing down a business entirely. Has it finally come to the bitter end? Hold an all-hands meeting or talk to employees one-on-one. Don't use email for it.
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The 10 Habits That Keep Marriages Strong
Try these surprisingly simple practices to stay — or fall back — in love with your partner.
By Holly Corbett

1. Not trying to change each other
Maybe you wish he folded his socks, or that he would chat it up with your friends without prompting. But, his inability to notice hair in the sink may stem from the laid-back personality that drew you to him in the first place. "One of the things we see with happy couples is that they know their partner's differences, and have pretty much stopped trying to change the other person," says Darren Wilk, a certified Gottman Couples Therapist with a private practice in Vancouver, British Columbia. "Rather than trying to fight their partner's personality style, they instead focus on each other's strengths." To better understand how to tap into both of your best qualities, take this quick relationship personality quiz.

2. Framing your demands as favors
Whether you want him to unload the dishwasher more often or pay closer attention to the kids, your partner will be more likely to change his behavior if he feels like he'll get relationship brownie points. "Throw it out there like a favor. Present it like 'here is the recipe for what will make me happy,' because everyone wants to make their partner feel happy," says Wilk. "When you present your needs, present them as what you do want rather than what you don't want." Instead of saying, "I hate when you have to have everything scheduled," try saying, "I would love to have a day where we can just be spontaneous."

3. Vocalizing your appreciation
Giving your partner positive reinforcement sounds like a no-brainer, but couples often forget to do it. "Relationship expert Gottman's research found that in everyday life, happy couples have 20 positive moments — such as a shared look, compliment, or affectionate touch — to every negative moment," says Wilk. Tell him something positive three times a day, and be specific. Instead of saying, "You're a good dad," tell him why. "You're a good dad because you helped our daughter with that puzzle, which I never would have had the patience to do."

4. Focusing on the positive
"Unhappy couples are stuck in a negative state of mind," says Wilk. "You will always find what you look for. If you look for stuff that bugs you and that your partner is doing wrong, you will find it every day. If you look at what your partner is doing it right, you’ll find it everyday." It's a choice to flip your mindset, so when you find yourself getting annoyed, visualize something he does that makes your heart flutter to halt the negative thought circuit.

5. Taking trips down memory lane
"Happy couples tend to rewrite history by glossing over the bad stuff and focusing on the happy times," says Wilk. By reliving memories out loud to your partner, it actually changes your mindset, and how you view him and think about your relationship. Try this exercise whenever your feel your relationship needs a boost: Go over the highlights of when you were first dating, or rehearse the best moments of your relationship (such as the day you had an impromptu picnic in the park during your lunch hour, or that surprise anniversary date he took you on) to uncover buried memories.

6. Never siding with the enemy
"Sometimes what affair-proofs relationships is simply being there when your partner needs to vent, and having their back without trying to fix the problem," says Wilk. "People want someone to listen to them.” The key is to be supportive, and never take the side of the person he’s venting about — even if you can see where that person is coming from. For example, if he is upset that his boss took away a contract and gave it to someone else in the office, now is not the time to say, "Well, maybe you didn't put your best effort in." Right now he needs his feelings validated, and to hear you say, "That must have been really hard." Happy couples know when to bite their tongues.

7. Not getting too comfortable
Trust, security, and commitment are key elements in any relationship, but having them doesn't mean you can treat your relationship as rock-solid, and stop trying. "Relationships are a fragile ecosystem, and that's why there is a 50% divorce rate," says Wilk. "Happy couples keep dating, telling each other they look great, and doing things together."

8. Having rituals of connection
"It's not only about having a date night, but happy couples seem to do a lot of mundane things together," says Wilk. "They have little habits that they decide to do together, whether it be sitting down to pay the bills once a month or folding laundry." We say, anything to make that pile of dirty clothes feel more manageable.

9. Knowing your partner's calls for attention
Happy couples are mindful of those little moves their partners do for attention. When Gottman's team studied 120 newlyweds in his Love Lab, they discovered that couples who stayed married six years later were paying attention to these bids for connection 86% of the time, compared to only 33% of the time for those who later divorced. So look out for the little things, and respond to his need to connect. Like if you're grocery shopping and he casually mentions that he hasn't had Fruit Loops since he was a kid, throw them in the cart for him to show that you care.

10. Doing the little things
"When it comes to relationship satisfaction, you can't just ride on the big things like, 'I don’t drink, I pay the bills, I don't beat you, we went to Hawaii last year,'" says Wilk. "This stuff is not really what keeps couples happy in their daily lives." What really matters is all the small stuff that adds up, such as being there for each other when one needs to vent, or noticing when he needs a hug, or making him his favorite meal just because. "It's also giving up on the idea that you have to feel in love all the time. Marriage is about trust and commitment and knowing each other," says Wilk. "That's what love is."
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Soleil Moon Frye shared on Twitter Feb. 11 that she's given birth to a baby boy; the Punky Brewster star and husband Jason Goldberg are already parents to daughters Poet, 8, and Jagger, 5
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